Multi-Sector Needs Assessment in Jubaland, Puntland, Southcentral and Somaliland

  • Contract
  • Somalia
  • TBD USD / Year
  • Salary: TBD

Norwegian Refugee Council


Multi-Sector Needs Assessment in Jubaland, Puntland, Southcentral and Somaliland

Location: Somalia

Duration: 21 working days

Critical interface: Country Office Monitoring and Evaluation Manager

Consultancy type International/ Local

Travel: Travel required for this consultancy







Livelihood and Food Security 5

Education 5

Shelter 5



NRC Responsibilities 7

Expected Deliverables 7





Protracted insecurity and recurrent violence in some parts of Somalia and frequent climatic shocks throughout the country remain the key drivers of displacement. The current drought threatens the lives of over 5 million[1] people, also caused major trade and market disruptions. On the other hand, conflict and the fluid security environment continue to restrict humanitarian access and therefore exacerbate the situation for the affected communities.

Cumulative Gu season rainfall between March to early June 2022 was 40-70 percent below average. Due to the impacts of drought on livestock health, poor and vulnerable pastoral households currently have limited access to milk and lack saleable animals. Pastoral households have also accumulated very high debt burdens, driven by the prohibitive costs of water and feed for livestock, an increased reliance on purchasing food for the family on credit, and abnormal livestock migration to distant areas in search of pasture and water[2].

Worsening drought is putting some areas in central and southern Somalia at an increased Risk of Famine through at least September 2022 if the current Gu season crop and livestock production fails, food prices continue to rise sharply[3].

In summary, an estimated 5.2 million people (or 33% of the total population) are already experiencing Crisis or worse (IPC Phase 3 or higher) outcomes, including 38 000 people likely in Catastrophe (IPC Phase 5), as of May 2022)[4]

The drought shows a pattern of returning once every three years since 2011. As a result, displacement and needs of IDP population continue to increase.

In the face of yet another drought in 2022, up-to-date information on the humanitarian situation, across the country is of crucial importance for NRC in order to inform the design and execution of programs that contribute to meaningful short to medium term changes while at the same time addressing most urgent humanitarian needs in line with the country’s Humanitarian Response Plan. To this end, NRC Somalia sets out this nationwide Multi-Sectoral Needs Assessment with specific focus on locations that are either in Crisis or Emergency phase according to the IPC phase classification of FSNAU – FAO. In addition, locations that are relatively in a better condition and are likely to receive IDPs will be included in the sample.


The primary objective of this yearly assessment exercise is to map the overall humanitarian needs in Somalia as one of the worst droughts in recent history rages and at the same time erodes whatever recovery affected households made from the 2015-2017 droughts. Secondly, it aims to provide an analytical insight as to where different needs lie and in what scale so that relevant NRC program sectors can prioritize, plan and respond.

The specific objectives are:

    1. To provide an empirical overview of the drought situation and related humanitarian needs across Somalia/Somaliland.
    2. To enable evidence-based engagement with the donor and partners in the humanitarian sector.
    3. To feed and strengthen advocacy efforts.
    4. To support better planning and implementation of emergency and longer term programs by allocating scarce resources based on need and community capacity.


Assessment methodology will be mainly household quantitative surveys and to a lesser extent Key Informant Interviews and Focus Group Discussions in districts targeted for the exercises. The formula to calculate sample size per individual target district is 95% Confidence level, 10% margin of error. The sampling frame will be made up of ‘People affected by displacement’ i.e. IDPs, Host Community, Refugees and Returnees. Sampling formula will be applied exclusively to each districts and not to the aggregate population of target districts. Locations will be selected based on latest 2022 IPC report issued by FSNAU (Food Security and Nutritional Analysis Unit) which identifies drought hotspots and locations that are/would likely develop into ‘crisis’ or emergency phase. Data collection will be through smart mobile devices registered on a digital data management platform.

It is important that samples are distributed to all Area Offices – 2 – 5 per Area Office.


All questionnaires and interviews will open with statement aimed at obtaining the consent of the interviewee(s). Potential respondents will be briefed about the purpose of the survey, the confidentiality and anonymity and that it is 100% voluntary. The interviewer will then expressly seek their consent to participate in the survey. Respondents who decline to participate will respectfully be left out.


The assessment will be centred on the 5 core competencies of NRC in order to maintain relevance with NRC overall program policy. Below are key priorities for each of the competencies based on which data is to be collected.

Livelihood and Food Security

Livelihood groups

    • What are the main sources of food and income within the affected population as a whole?
      – What are the risks that the affected population experiences? (drought, inflation, insecurity, no jobs).
      – Do different sections of the affected population face different risks? (IDPs, refugees, pastoralists)
      – Are population groups with similar sources of food and income living in the same geographical area?
      – Describe the different wealth groups?

Coping strategies

    • What coping strategies are being used? (selling assets, borrowing from relatives, skipping meals, sending household members away to find employment, migrating with the entire household, seeking assistance from relief centres, etc).
    • For how long can they continue using such coping strategies?

Markets existence and functioning

    • Are shops trading? Which ones are trading? Are goods and services readily available?
      – What are the prices of basic commodities? How have prices changed over time?
      – What services do the markets provide? How have the services been affected?
  • How have incomes (IGAs, livestock sales etc) changed over time?

    • What constraints are women and men facing to access goods & services from market? (Credit? cash?)
    • Which groups (livelihood, gender, ethnic) have more constrained in accessing goods and services in the market?

Impact on livelihood system

    • What are the main sources of food and income?
      – How have these changed over time?
      – Have you people been forced to incur any debt? How much and from whom?
      – Do you think the sources of food and income will recover and return to normal?
      – What happens to people who have dropped out of traditional livelihood systems?
      – How have livelihood systems in the past been able to cope?What has changed?
      – How has population size affected the fragility of the livelihood system?

Future changes.

    • Are there major events in the future that may change people’s access to food or income? ( labour, drought, conflict, environmental degradation etc)
      – Is it possible to do a seasonal calendar?
      – Are households in danger of not being able to afford basic items with rising commodity prices?
      – How will men and women deal with debt accumulated as a result of the shock?

External response

  • What is the government doing to address the situation (capacity and interest)?
  • What are commercial traders doing to address food availability?
  • What UN, local and international agencies are present/operational in the affected area? What are they doing?
  • Have there been any joint / collaborative assessments*.*
  • What are the views on how the situation will evolve?


  • Target groups (IDPs, Refugee, HC etc )

    • Estimated School aged children in selected regions and districts
    • Out of school children in selected regions and districts
    • Number of schools and enrolments in existing schools
    • Number of classrooms and number of drop outs, reasons behind drop outs
    • Protection
      • Location of the schools
      • Distance to school
    • What are barriers to the access? What key implementation have worked, role of infrastructure, baseline statics
  • Quality

    • Teacher capacity
    • Number of teachers trained or untrained and gender
    • Student –teacher ratio
    • Teacher motivation
    • Curriculum
    • Availability of instructional materials
    • Teaching/methods and discipline
    • Participation
      • PTAs/SMC
    • Child participation
    • What obstacles exist at te
  • Financing

    • Fees and associated costs
      • Responsibility of families
      • Government responsibility
    • Poverty
      • Food and impact of school feeding
    • clothing/uniforms


  • Do the worst affected still have household essentials (cooking sets, blankets, plastic sheet, etc.)? What is % of families that are without these?
  • What are some non-food items needed by the different kind of displaced people?
  • What percentage of the IDP population was targeted for NFI distributions. Are there any settlements with specific needs regarding NFIs and please explain?
  • What type of shelters does the majority of the IDPs has and their conditions?
  • What is the total number of people in need of Shelter (families),
  • What is the approximate number of affected households in locations visited? This could include host populations as well as IDPs. Among the IDPs are there worse-off groups (more vulnerable)?
  • What are the main drivers of displacement? Please provide the data on the drivers for displacement compared to last year and the outlook for 2016. Should include a specific section on El Nino and anticipated needs (mainly looking at recovery response


  • Availability of safe water (sources, functioning status – protected? adequate?); Access to and use of safe sources (does security limit access, do people have anything to transport water?).
  • Observed/reported risks of water borne diseases;
  • Are there sanitation concerns? What are the Practices and attitudes regarding latrines?


  • To Identify the needs related to Housing, land and property rights for the IDPs, returnees and the host communities
  • To know what are the key obstacles to durable solution regarding land, housing and property rights
  • Identify the needs related to legal identity (civil documentation) of the IDPs, Refugees, returnees and their host communities
  • What are the protection gaps in all visited areas?

To map the legal process and other practical issues relating to provision of legal services in target locations.

NRC Responsibilities

  1. Adherence to the contract terms and conditions
  2. Oversight of the exercise
  3. Develop jointly with the service provider assessment questions and refine indicators
  4. Work with the service provider on the preparation of tools, selection of sampling and data gathering methodologies.
  5. Sign-off technical plan/proposal
  6. Sign-off tools before deployed for fieldwork
  7. Participate in validation workshop to give feedback and endorse assessment findings
  8. Assign a focal point that regularly liaises with the service provider

Expected Deliverables

  1. Technical Proposal including work plan
  2. Assessment indicators
  3. Desk review report
  4. Data collection tools
  5. Preliminary findings for initial review
  6. Validation Workshop
  7. Raw data for storage with NRC
  8. Final report issued and provided as a result of which;
    1. NRC team will have identified community needs and priorities in target locations to use it as a basis for immediate response programs and strategy revision.
    2. NRC will obtain first-hand representative information on IDPs in target locations, that is useable for program and advocacy efforts.


The deliverables will be approved by the NRC Country Office M&E Manager. The consultant/firm will be expected to arrange and cover the costs of consultancy fee, field work and other logistics associated with the assignment. NRC will provide useful project documents that will inform this exercise.


The work is expected to be completed in 21 working days – the exact timing will depend on the final agreement with NRC.


  1. The consultancy firm must be registered with all relevant authorities and specialises in conducting qualitative and quantitative research.
  2. The consultancy firm must have more than 7 years’ experience of conducting a variety of surveys in Somalia/Somaliland.
  3. The consultancy firm must demonstrate ability to field experienced teams to conduct face-to-face interviews in Somalia/Somaliland.
  4. The consultancy firm has impeccable record of confidentiality and sensitivity, and be able and willing to handle sensitive information, ensuring anonymity of respondents whilst safeguarding access to the raw data for partners stated in this Terms of Reference.
  5. The consultancy firm can demonstrate sound financial accountability.
  6. The consultancy firm be able to use to a high level, data entry and data analysing software such as CS Pro and SPSS, and be able to provide visual graphics of data, such as charts produced in Microsoft Excel. Experience in graphic design will be an advantage, but not required.
  7. The consultancy firm has a good track record of working with international organisations such as international NGOs or the UN in Somalia; in particular, a good track record in previous work with NRC is required.


  • Inception Meeting with NRC
  • Inception report
  • Desk review of relevant project documents
  • Development, pre-testing and validation of the survey questionnaire
  • Finalization of assessment tools including scripting of questions on ODK/Kobo tools, if applicable.
  • Data collection
  • Data analysis and preparation of the draft report
  • Validation of draft report
  • Final Report and PowerPoint presentation

Application procedures and requirements

The consultant/consulting firm interested are expected to provide following documentation:

    1. A cover letter introducing the consultant. In the case of a firm, the cover letter should introduce the team composition and specifying the role to be played by each team member.
    2. A technical proposal of not more than 10 pages outlining how to execute the task with a clear framework, methodology and timelines. Proposed methodology should demonstrate a clear understanding of the ToR (sampling framework, data collection strategy/methods)
    3. Resume of the consultant, or each team member for firms
    4. Evidence of experience conducting similar assignments
    5. Proposed budget indicating consultancy fee, costs of enumerators/ data collection, and all other auxiliary costs in USD.

How to apply


All applications should be addressed to [email protected] on or before 3rd September, 2022, referencing ‘Multi-sector survey in Somalia’ in the subject of the email.

Closing date: 9/3/2022